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. 2020 May 20;1-5.
doi: 10.1007/s11739-020-02370-8. Online ahead of print.

Flowchart for Non-Invasive Ventilation Support in COVID-19 Patients From a Northern Italy Emergency Department

Free PMC article

Flowchart for Non-Invasive Ventilation Support in COVID-19 Patients From a Northern Italy Emergency Department

Daniele Privitera et al. Intern Emerg Med. .
Free PMC article


With the rapid pandemic spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2), Emergency Departments of affected countries are facing an increasing number of patients presenting with hypoxemic respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Providing mechanical support and endotracheal intubation can be challenging due to a number of patients larger than usual, often exceeding available resources. Considering the lack of recommendations available, we developed a flowchart to standardize the first approach to patients presenting to the Emergency Department with hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19; Continuous positive airways pressure; Hypoxemic respiratory failure; Non-invasive ventilation.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1
COVID-19 patient support ventilation flowchart

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