In recent months, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has sent many countries into crisis. Studies have shown that this virus causes worse outcomes and a higher mortality in men than in women. It has been recognized that sex can affect the immune response to a pathogenic agent, as well as the susceptibility for some respiratory diseases. These different responses in males and females may be related to the actions of sex hormones. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) acts as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which causes COVID-19. The expression of ACE2 is influenced by sex hormones; therefore, we discuss in this article that this could be one of the reasons why COVID-19 is more prevalent in men than in women.
Keywords: ACE2; SARS-CoV; hormones; pandemia; sex difference.
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