Effect of pH regulation on the components and functional properties of proteins isolated from cold-pressed rapeseed meal through alkaline extraction and acid precipitation

Food Chem. 2020 Oct 15;327:126998. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126998. Epub 2020 May 6.

Abstract

Cold-pressed rapeseed meal with high protein content (38.76% protein dry weight basis) was used to prepare rapeseed protein isolates (RPIs) by alkaline extraction (pH 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0 and 13.0) and acid precipitation (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5). The protein with an intact structure and the highest yield (65.08%) was obtained at extraction pH 9.0 and precipitation pH 4.5, accompanied by the lowest D-amino acid content, the lightest colour and the lowest contents of glucosinolates (2.85 mmol/kg), phytic acid (1.05 mg/g) and sinapine (0.68 mg/g). Additionally, water/oil absorption, foaming and emulsifying capacities decreased with decreasing precipitation pH, while the solubility showed the reverse trend. During gastric simulation digestion, the α-polypeptide of cruciferin and napin in the RPIs showed digestive resistance. Overall, pH regulation might be an effective method to isolate high quality RPIs for use in the food processing industry.

Keywords: Alkaline extraction and acid precipitation; Antinutritional factors; Functional properties; Rapeseed protein isolates; Simulative gastric digestion; pH regulation.