Purpose: Gliomas are brain tumors with dismal prognoses. The standard-of-care treatments for gliomas include surgical resection, radiation, and temozolomide administration; however, they have been ineffective in providing significant increases in median survival. Antigen-specific cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint blockade may provide promising immunotherapeutic approaches for gliomas.
Experimental design: We have developed immunotherapy delivery vehicles based on synthetic high-density lipoprotein (sHDL) loaded with CpG, a Toll-like receptor-9 agonist, and tumor-specific neoantigens to target gliomas and elicit immune-mediated tumor regression.
Results: We demonstrate that vaccination with neoantigen peptide-sHDL/CpG cocktail in combination with anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint blocker elicits robust neoantigen-specific T-cell responses against GL261 cells and eliminated established orthotopic GL261 glioma in 33% of mice. Mice remained tumor free upon tumor cell rechallenge in the contralateral hemisphere, indicating the development of immunologic memory. Moreover, in a genetically engineered murine model of orthotopic mutant IDH1 (mIDH1) glioma, sHDL vaccination with mIDH1 neoantigen eliminated glioma in 30% of animals and significantly extended the animal survival, demonstrating the versatility of our approach in multiple glioma models.
Conclusions: Overall, our strategy provides a general roadmap for combination immunotherapy against gliomas and other cancer types.
©2020 American Association for Cancer Research.