Inferring multimodal latent topics from electronic health records

Nat Commun. 2020 May 21;11(1):2536. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16378-3.

Abstract

Electronic health records (EHR) are rich heterogeneous collections of patient health information, whose broad adoption provides clinicians and researchers unprecedented opportunities for health informatics, disease-risk prediction, actionable clinical recommendations, and precision medicine. However, EHRs present several modeling challenges, including highly sparse data matrices, noisy irregular clinical notes, arbitrary biases in billing code assignment, diagnosis-driven lab tests, and heterogeneous data types. To address these challenges, we present MixEHR, a multi-view Bayesian topic model. We demonstrate MixEHR on MIMIC-III, Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder, and Quebec Congenital Heart Disease EHR datasets. Qualitatively, MixEHR disease topics reveal meaningful combinations of clinical features across heterogeneous data types. Quantitatively, we observe superior prediction accuracy of diagnostic codes and lab test imputations compared to the state-of-art methods. We leverage the inferred patient topic mixtures to classify target diseases and predict mortality of patients in critical conditions. In all comparison, MixEHR confers competitive performance and reveals meaningful disease-related topics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bayes Theorem
  • Databases, Factual
  • Electronic Health Records / classification*
  • Electronic Health Records / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Machine Learning
  • Medical Informatics / methods*
  • Models, Statistical
  • Phenotype

Grant support