Thromboembolism and Anticoagulant Therapy During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Interim Clinical Guidance From the Anticoagulation Forum

J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2020 Jul;50(1):72-81. doi: 10.1007/s11239-020-02138-z.

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection that can, in severe cases, result in cytokine storm, systemic inflammatory response and coagulopathy that is prognostic of poor outcomes. While some, but not all, laboratory findings appear similar to sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), COVID-19- induced coagulopathy (CIC) appears to be more prothrombotic than hemorrhagic. It has been postulated that CIC may be an uncontrolled immunothrombotic response to COVID-19, and there is growing evidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic events in these critically ill patients. Clinicians around the globe are challenged with rapidly identifying reasonable diagnostic, monitoring and anticoagulant strategies to safely and effectively manage these patients. Thoughtful use of proven, evidence-based approaches must be carefully balanced with integration of rapidly emerging evidence and growing experience. The goal of this document is to provide guidance from the Anticoagulation Forum, a North American organization of anticoagulation providers, regarding use of anticoagulant therapies in patients with COVID-19. We discuss in-hospital and post-discharge venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention, treatment of suspected but unconfirmed VTE, laboratory monitoring of COVID-19, associated anticoagulant therapies, and essential elements for optimized transitions of care specific to patients with COVID-19.

Keywords: Anticoagulation; COVID-19; Direct oral anticoagulant; Prophylaxis; Stewardship; Venous thromboembolism.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use*
  • Coronavirus Infections / complications
  • Coronavirus Infections / therapy*
  • Heparin / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Patient Discharge
  • Patient Transfer
  • Pneumonia, Viral / complications
  • Pneumonia, Viral / therapy*
  • Thrombolytic Therapy
  • Venous Thromboembolism / prevention & control*
  • Venous Thromboembolism / virology
  • Warfarin

Substances

  • Anticoagulants
  • Warfarin
  • Heparin

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19