Sex-specific Association of Urate and Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease

Eur J Neurol. 2020 May 22. doi: 10.1111/ene.14337. Online ahead of print.


Background and purpose: As a major antioxidant, uric acid (UA) is known to be associated with the clinical progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated whether baseline UA levels are associated with the risk for levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD in a sex-dependent manner.

Methods: In all, 152 patients with de novo PD (78 males and 74 females) who were followed up for >2 years were enrolled. The effect of baseline serum UA levels on LID-free survival was assessed by Cox regression, separately for sex, whilst being adjusted for potential confounding factors. The optimal UA level cut-off value to determine the high-risk group for LID was set using Contal and O'Quigley's method.

Results: Levodopa-induced dyskinesia developed in 23 (29.5%) male patients and 30 (40.5%) female patients. Cox regression showed a significant interaction between UA level and sex. Higher UA levels were associated with a higher risk for LID in male PD patients (hazard ratio 1.380; 95% confidence interval 1.038-1.835; P = 0.027), although this relationship was not observed in female PD patients. The optimal UA level cut-off for LID in male PD was 7.2 mg/dl, and the high UA group had a 5.7-fold higher risk of developing LID than the low UA group.

Conclusions: Contrary to a presumptive beneficial role of UA, the present study demonstrated that higher UA levels are associated with increased risk of LID occurrence in male patients with PD, suggesting a sex-dependent role of UA in LID.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; levodopa-induced dyskinesia; sex-specific association; uric acid.