Objectives: There are increasing concerns regarding proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and the risk of fractures in adults. Few studies have evaluated this risk among pediatric patients. This study examined fractures and fracture location among pediatric patients exposed to PPI compared with those without documented exposure.
Study design: Encounters for patients 6 months to 15.5 years were identified between July 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015 in the Pediatric Hospital Information System database. Exclusion criteria was applied for chronic illnesses, conditions or medications predisposing to fracture. Encounters were classified as PPI encounters if a charge for PPI was documented. PPI encounters were propensity matched to non-PPI encounters. Following initial encounter, patients were evaluated over a 2-year period for hospitalizations resulting from fracture.
Results: There was a statistically significant higher rate of fractures among the PPI-exposed group (1.4% vs 1.2%, P = 0.019). Adjusting for remaining differences in sex, race, encounter type, payer, and resource intensity after matching, the difference remained statistically significant (P = 0.017) with an adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.2 (1.0--1.4). Upper extremity was the most common location for fracture; however, the PPI cohort was more likely to suffer from lower extremity, rib, and spinal fractures (P = 0.01).
Conclusions: This study suggests an increased risk of fracture among pediatric patients taking PPI. Among patients hospitalized with a fracture, those with PPI exposure had a higher rate of lower extremity, rib, and spine fractures compared with controls. This appeared to be a class effect not related to individual PPI agent.