Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy: ACOG Practice Bulletin, Number 223

Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Jun;135(6):e261-e274. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003893.


Both thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There also is concern about the effect of overt maternal thyroid disease on fetal development. In addition, medications that affect the maternal thyroid gland can cross the placenta and affect the fetal thyroid gland. This document reviews the thyroid-related pathophysiologic changes that occur during pregnancy and the effects of overt and subclinical maternal thyroid disease on maternal and fetal outcomes. This Practice Bulletin has been updated with information on the diagnosis and the management of thyroid disease in pregnant women and includes a new clinical algorithm on management of thyroid disease in pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / diagnosis*
  • Pregnancy Complications / therapy*
  • Prenatal Care
  • Puerperal Disorders / diagnosis
  • Puerperal Disorders / therapy
  • Societies, Medical
  • Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Thyroid Diseases / therapy*
  • Thyroid Function Tests
  • United States