Protein phosphorylation is essential for regulating cellular activities by modifying substrates at specific residues, which frequently interact with proteins containing phosphoprotein-binding domains (PPBDs) to propagate the phosphorylation signaling into downstream pathways. Although massive phosphorylation sites (p-sites) have been reported, most of their interacting PPBDs are unknown. Here, we collected 4458 known PPBD-specific binding p-sites (PBSs), considerably improved our previously developed group-based prediction system (GPS) algorithm, and implemented a deep learning plus transfer learning strategy for model training. Then, we developed a new online service named GPS-PBS, which can hierarchically predict PBSs of 122 single PPBD clusters belonging to two groups and 16 families. By comparison, GPS-PBS achieved a highly competitive accuracy against other existing tools. Using GPS-PBS, we predicted 371,018 mammalian p-sites that potentially interact with at least one PPBD, and revealed that various PPBD-containing proteins (PPCPs) and protein kinases (PKs) can simultaneously regulate the same p-sites to orchestrate important pathways, such as the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, we anticipate GPS-PBS can be a great help for further dissecting phosphorylation signaling networks.
Keywords: PPBD-specific binding p-site; deep learning; phosphoprotein-binding domain; phosphorylation site; protein kinase; protein phosphorylation.