Purpose: Identification of inherited breast cancer may guide cancer risk management. We sought to compare risk management practices across women with inherited breast cancer genes.
Methods: Females with a pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variant in BRCA1/2, PALB2, CHEK2, and/or ATM were surveyed about cancer risk management. Comparisons were made across genes.
Results: The 235 participants with P/LP variants (186 BRCA1/2, 28 PALB2, 15 CHEK2, and 6 ATM) had a median age of 54 and 61% had a prior breast cancer diagnosis. For women with P/LP variants in BRCA1/2, PALB2, and ATM/CHEK2, bilateral mastectomy (BM) rates were 79%, 61%, and 52%, and bilateral oophorectomy (BO) rates were 89%, 30%, and 37%, respectively. Among women with P/LP variants in PALB2 and ATM/CHEK2, 27% of those who had a BO had a family history of ovarian cancer. Contralateral mastectomy rates for women with P/LP variants in PALB2 and ATM/CHEK2 with unilateral breast cancer were 60% and 58%, and BM rates for those without breast cancer were 57% and 29%, respectively.
Conclusion: These findings suggest high rates of both contralateral mastectomies among those with unilateral breast cancer and BM among those without a breast cancer diagnosis across women with P/LP variants in high and moderate penetrance breast cancer genes. BO was also often utilized for risk reduction across these women. These findings suggest potential overtreatment through risk-reducing surgery, and highlight the importance of promoting guideline-adherent, risk-appropriate care.
Keywords: Breast cancer; Disease management; Genetic testing; Germline mutation; Public health.