Reviewing the Evidence on Vitamin D Supplementation in the Management of Testosterone Status and Its Effects on Male Reproductive System (Testis and Prostate): Mechanistically Dazzling but Clinically Disappointing

Clin Ther. 2020 Jun;42(6):e101-e114. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2020.03.016. Epub 2020 May 21.


Purpose: Vitamin D supplementation has been suggested to increase testosterone levels. The primary purpose of this literature review was to critically assess the physiologic effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum testosterone concentrations in men and the secondary purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of vitamin D status toward urologic health (testis and prostate).

Methods: A structured literature review was performed using the Cochrane, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases. The literature search encompassed studies published between 2011 and 2019.

Findings: Observational studies suggest an association between higher testosterone and serum vitamin D concentrations. Conversely, most randomized clinical trials that investigated the effect of vitamin D administration on testosterone levels have failed to detect any significant effect. Physiologically, vitamin D is engaging in spermatogenesis, but it remains unclear whether vitamin D is a determinant of fertility. With prostate support, the management of vitamin D status has been associated with a decreased prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and symptoms (ie, lower urinary tract symptoms). However, with prostate cancer, there is a paucity of evidence pertaining to vitamin D supplementation.

Implications: Mechanistically, vitamin D exhibits essential roles in the testis and prostate; otherwise, there is no apparent evidence to support the use of vitamin D supplementation to increase testosterone levels and to improve clinical outcomes related to the male reproductive system.

Keywords: 25(OH)D; male hypogonadism; testosterone; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostate / drug effects
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Semen / drug effects
  • Testis / drug effects
  • Testosterone / blood*
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamins / blood


  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D
  • Testosterone