Purpose: Vitamin D supplementation has been suggested to increase testosterone levels. The primary purpose of this literature review was to critically assess the physiologic effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum testosterone concentrations in men and the secondary purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of vitamin D status toward urologic health (testis and prostate).
Methods: A structured literature review was performed using the Cochrane, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases. The literature search encompassed studies published between 2011 and 2019.
Findings: Observational studies suggest an association between higher testosterone and serum vitamin D concentrations. Conversely, most randomized clinical trials that investigated the effect of vitamin D administration on testosterone levels have failed to detect any significant effect. Physiologically, vitamin D is engaging in spermatogenesis, but it remains unclear whether vitamin D is a determinant of fertility. With prostate support, the management of vitamin D status has been associated with a decreased prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and symptoms (ie, lower urinary tract symptoms). However, with prostate cancer, there is a paucity of evidence pertaining to vitamin D supplementation.
Implications: Mechanistically, vitamin D exhibits essential roles in the testis and prostate; otherwise, there is no apparent evidence to support the use of vitamin D supplementation to increase testosterone levels and to improve clinical outcomes related to the male reproductive system.
Keywords: 25(OH)D; male hypogonadism; testosterone; vitamin D.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.