Disparities in Objective Sleep Quality as Assessed Through Wrist Actigraphy in Minority Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2021 Feb 16;27(3):371-378. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izaa106.


Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with a reduced quality of life. Minority patients with IBD specifically report more impairing symptoms compared with nonminority patients. Sleep quality, a key component of quality of life, is significantly compromised in minority patients compared with nonminority patients. Nevertheless, subjective and objective sleep assessments in minority patients with IBD have not explicitly been assessed. The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to assess and compare objective sleep parameters utilizing wrist actigraphy between minority and nonminority IBD patients.

Methods: In this institutional review board approved study, 74 patients with IBD were recruited and stratified into 2 cohorts by self-identification: white nonminority patients and minority patients. Patients in the minority cohort included black and Hispanic individuals (black and nonblack). Exclusion criteria included significant comorbidity, a history of an underlying sleep disorder, or patients who did not self-identify into categorized cohorts. Sleep was measured not only through wrist-based actigraphy but also with sleep surveys. Sleep parameters were compared between minority and nonminority cohorts. Regression analyses were performed to assess for factors independently associated with parameters of poor sleep quality.

Results: Sixty-four patients (86.4%) were included in the final analysis. Thirty-one individuals (48.4%) were categorized into the nonminority cohort, and 33 (51.6%) patients were in the minority cohort. A significantly higher number of minority patients had poorer sleep efficiency and fragmented sleep compared with nonminority patients (90.9% vs 67.7%; P = 0.03 and 87.8% vs 61.3%; P = 0.02). In the adjusted analysis, minority status was independently associated with poor sleep efficiency (odds ratio = 6.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-28.17; P = 0.0139) and fragmented sleep (odds ratio = 4.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-22.89; P = 0.0389).

Conclusions: Minority patients with IBD were shown to have poorer objective measures of sleep as assessed through wrist actigraphy compared to nonminority patients. Cultural competency in the care of minority patients with IBD, specifically focusing on the management of psychosocial issues, is needed to address these disparities in sleep. The inclusion of minority patients with IBD in studies investigating sleep and other psychosocial issues are warranted not only to assess potential disparities in disease course but also to determine the etiologies of poor sleep in minority patients with IBD.

Keywords: Crohn disease; inflammatory bowel disease; quality of life; racial disparities; sleep; ulcerative colitis.

MeSH terms

  • Actigraphy
  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases* / ethnology
  • Minority Groups*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality of Life
  • Sleep Quality*
  • Wrist