We analyzed clinical cutoffs for defining computed tomography (CT) methods for sarcopenia and examined the prognostic value of CT for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCST) outcomes of patients with myeloid malignancy. One hundred twenty-five adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent first allo-HSCT between 2000 and 2017 were included. Sarcopenia was assessed using CT-based skeletal muscle index (SMI) and mean muscle attenuation at L3. A statistical difference in SMI was confirmed between sarcopenia (n = 52) and nonsarcopenia (n = 73) patients. There were no significant correlations of muscularity with age, performance status, or other characteristics of HSCT. After 2 years, overall survival (OS) was 43.5% and 70.1%, disease-free survival was 52.9% and 68.6%, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 20.8% and 8.4%, incidence of acute GVHD (≥ grade 2) was 38.8% and 39.1%, that of chronic GVHD was 53.2% and 37.3%, and median duration of hospitalization was 88 days and 74 days (P = 0.026), respectively, in the sarcopenia and nonsarcopenia groups. Multivariate analysis showed that presence of sarcopenia is a novel adverse factor for high NRM and poor OS. Pretransplant CT-defined sarcopenia is correlated with decreased OS, increased NRM, and prolonged hospitalization.
Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia; Computed tomography; Myelodysplastic syndrome; Nonrelapse mortality; Sarcopenia.