Myosin XVIII

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1239:421-438. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-38062-5_19.

Abstract

Class XVIII myosins represent a branch of the myosin family tree characterized by the presence of large N- and C-terminal extensions flanking a generic myosin core. These myosins display the highest sequence similarity to conventional class II muscle myosins and are compatible with but not restricted to myosin-2 contractile structures. Instead, they fulfill their functions at diverse localities, such as lamella, actomyosin bundles, the Golgi apparatus, focal adhesions, the cell membrane, and within sarcomeres. Sequence comparison of active-site residues and biochemical data available thus far indicate that this myosin class lacks active ATPase-driven motor activity, suggesting that its members function as structural myosins. An emerging body of evidence indicates that this structural capability is essential for the organization, maturation, and regulation of the contractile machinery in both muscle and nonmuscle cells. This is supported by the clear association of myosin-18A (Myo18A) and myosin-18B (Myo18B) dysregulation with diseases such as cancer and various myopathies.

Keywords: Cancer; GOLPH3; Golgi; Myofibrillogenesis; Myosin-18; Sarcomere; Surfactant protein A receptor; Transport; Tumor suppressor.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Actin Cytoskeleton
  • Actins
  • Actomyosin
  • Humans
  • Muscle Contraction
  • Myosins*

Substances

  • Actins
  • Actomyosin
  • Myosins