Purpose of review: Cardiogenic shock is a severe complication with mortality rates of ∼50% that requires a rapid and complex management to aid and identify the highest and lowest risk patients. To that end, novel cardiogenic shock biomarkers are needed to improve risk stratification and to personalize therapy.
Recent findings: Established biomarkers such as BNP, NT-proBNP, ST2, and troponins provide insufficient predictive value in cardiogenic shock. More recent biomarkers, including DPP3, adrenomedullin, angiopoietin 2, and the CS4P score are gaining momentum. DPP3 showed early prediction of refractory status and survival in cardiogenic shock. The CS4P score is based on the levels of liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB), and SerpinG1 (IC1). These proteins are not cardiac-specific but reflect multiorgan dysfunction, systemic inflammation, and immune activation. The CS4P improved reclassification of 32% of patients compared with the CardShock risk score.
Summary: A new wave of research focused on novel proteomic and molecular techniques, is providing new candidates that promise to aid clinical decision-making and patient stratification in cardiogenic shock. The CS4P score is emerging as the most robust, yet it requires prospective validation in cardiogenic shock patients managed with circulatory and ventricular assist devices.