In the present study, the antibacterial activity of Cornus macrophylla was examined. Organic solvent extracts of leaves were prepared using methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. Antibacterial activity was examined by using a 100 mg/mL extract concentration. Penicillin was kept as a positive control while dimethyl sulfoxide was taken as a negative control. Methanolic extract exhibited a 21.5, 36.3, 25.3, and 23.7 mm inhibition zone diameter (IZD); n-hexane showed a 33, 40, 32.8, and 28.7 mm IZD; chloroform showed a 18.8, 29, 22.3, and 21.6 mm IZD; and ethyl acetate showed a 23.5, 30.2, 30, and 22.3 mm IZD against Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas syringae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas axonopodis, respectively. The n-hexane extract revealed high antibacterial activity against all bacterial species as compared with methanolic, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extract. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of n-hexane extract depicted the presence of 55 compounds. Out of these compounds, one compound, identified as α-amyrin (Mol. wt = 426), exhibited the maximum peak area (32.64%), followed by A'-Neogammacer-22(29)-en-3-ol, acetate, (3.beta.,21.beta.)- (Mol. wt = 468) and β-amyrin (Mol. wt = 426) having peak areas of 25.97 and 6.77%, respectively. It was concluded that the antibacterial activity observed during the present investigation may be due to these compounds.
Keywords: Cornus macrophylla; GC/MS; antibacterial activity; α-amyrin.