Cultural heritage objects are affected by a wide range of factors causing their deterioration and decay over time such as ground deformations, changes in hydrographic conditions, vibrations or excess of moisture, which can cause scratches and cracks formation in the case of historic buildings. The electromagnetic spectroscopy has been widely used for non-destructive structural health monitoring of concrete structures. However, the limitation of this technology is a lack of geolocalisation in the space for multispectral architectural documentation. The aim of this study is to examine different geolocalisation methods in order to determine the position of the sensor system, which will then allow to georeference the results of measurements performed by this device and apply corrections to the sensor response, which is a crucial element required for further data processing related to the object structure and its features. The classical surveying, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry methods were used in this investigation at three test sites. The methods were reviewed and investigated. The results indicated that TLS technique should be applied for simple structures and plain textures, while the SfM technique should be used for marble-based and other translucent or semi-translucent structures in order to achieve the highest accuracy for geolocalisation of the proposed sensor system.
Keywords: Structure-from-Motion; cultural heritage; electromagnetic sensor; geolocalisation; multisensor platform; non-destructive techniques; photogrammetry; structural health monitoring (SHM), surveying.