Hydration Efficacy of a Milk Permeate-Based Oral Hydration Solution

Nutrients. 2020 May 21;12(5):1502. doi: 10.3390/nu12051502.


Milk permeate is an electrolyte-rich, protein- and fat-free liquid with a similar carbohydrate and mineral content to that of milk. Its hydration efficacy has not been examined. The beverage hydration index (BHI) has been used to compare various beverages to water in terms of post-ingestion fluid balance and retention. Our purpose was to compare the BHI (and related physiological responses) of a novel milk permeate solution (MPS) to that of water and a traditional carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES). Over three visits, 12 young subjects consumed 1 L of water, CES, or MPS. Urine samples were collected immediately post-ingestion and at 60, 120, 180, and 240 min. BHI was calculated by dividing cumulative urine output after water consumption by cumulative urine output for each test beverage at each time point. The BHI for MPS was significantly higher at all time points compared to water (all p < 0.001) and CES (all p ≤ 0.01) but did not differ between CES and water at any time point. Drinking 1 L of MPS resulted in decreased cumulative urine output across the subsequent 4 h compared to water and CES, suggesting that a beverage containing milk permeate is superior to water and a traditional CES at sustaining positive fluid balance post-ingestion.

Keywords: beverage hydration index; dairy; electrolytes; fluid balance; osmolality; plasma volume; sports drink.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Blood Chemical Analysis
  • Blood Glucose
  • Eating
  • Electrolytes / blood*
  • Electrolytes / urine*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Osmolar Concentration*
  • Solutions
  • Urine
  • Water
  • Water-Electrolyte Balance / physiology*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Electrolytes
  • Solutions
  • Water