EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Neurofeedback Training in Healthy Females

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2020 Sep;45(3):195-210. doi: 10.1007/s10484-020-09472-1.


A growing number of studies suggest that EEG theta/beta ratio (TBR) is inversely related to executive cognitive control. Neurofeedback training aimed at reducing TBR (TBR NFT) might provide a tool to study causality in this relation and might enhance human performance. To investigate whether TBR NFT reduces TBR in healthy participants. Twelve healthy female participants were assigned (single blind) to one of three groups. Groups differed on baseline durations and one group received only sham NFT. TBR NFT consisted of eight or fourteen 25-min sessions. No evidence was found that TBR NFT had any effect on TBR. The current TBR NFT protocol is possibly ineffective. This is in line with a previous study with a different protocol.

Keywords: EEG theta/beta ratio; Multiple baseline design; Neurofeedback.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Beta Rhythm / physiology*
  • Cerebral Cortex / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Neurofeedback / methods*
  • Neurofeedback / physiology*
  • Placebos
  • Research Design
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Theta Rhythm / physiology*
  • Young Adult


  • Placebos