Targeting Lymph Node Niches Enhances Type 1 Immune Responses to Immunization

Cell Rep. 2020 May 26;31(8):107679. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107679.


Generating robust CD4+ T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) responses is essential for protective vaccine-induced type 1 immunity. Here, we examine whether immunization formulation associated with enhanced vaccine efficacy promotes antigen targeting and cell recruitment into lymph node (LN) niches associated with optimal type 1 responses. Immunization with antigen and Toll-like receptor agonist emulsified in oil leads to an increased differentiation of IFNγ/TNF-α+ polyfunctional Th1 cells compared to an identical immunization in saline. Oil immunization results in a rapid delivery and persistence of antigen in interfollicular regions (IFRs) of the LN, whereas without oil, antigen is distributed in the medullary region. Following oil immunization, CXCL10-producing inflammatory monocytes accumulate in the IFR, which mobilizes antigen-specific CD4+ T cells into this niche. In this microenvironment, CD4+ T cells are advantageously positioned to encounter arriving IL-12-producing inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs). These data suggest that formulations delivering antigen to the LN IFR create an inflammatory niche that can improve vaccine efficacy.

Keywords: CD4(+) T cells; CXCL10; Th1; chemokines; emulsification; interfollicular region; lymph node; monocytes; vaccines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Immunity / immunology*
  • Immunization / methods*
  • Lymph Nodes / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Th1 Cells / immunology*