Ring-Patterned Perovskite Single Crystals Fabricated by the Combination of Rigid and Flexible Templates

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2020 Jun 17;12(24):27786-27793. doi: 10.1021/acsami.0c06893. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Abstract

Regular microstructures can improve the electrical and optical characteristics of perovskite single crystals because of the removal of defects and grain boundaries. Microstructured single crystals are commonly fabricated by either rigid or flexible templates. However, rigid templates usually need surface treatment before crystal fabrication to create an antiadhesion layer, while flexible templates encounter difficulties in achieving a large area of uniform single crystals without any deformation. In this work, we present a facile and robust method to fabricate perovskite single crystals using rigid silicon pillars coated with flexible polymer solutions, in which surface treatment is avoided in the preparation process, and deformation is absent in the formed crystals. The method realized the fabrication of colorful concentric-ring patterns composed of nanoscale single crystals for the first time. In order to concisely control the preparation of the template, the Newton's ring phenomenon was used to value the droplet height because the number of rings changed with the optical path difference. A related digital simulation was performed to find the correlation of the Newton's ring pattern with the shape of the droplets. The simulated results were consistent with the experimental observations generally, indicating that the pattern could be controlled mechanically. Concomitantly, the resulting perovskite nanoscale single crystals formed a regular colorful concentric-ring pattern. By changing the design of the rigid templates, the parameters of the fabrication process, or the selection of the coating polymer solution, different ring-patterned single crystals were successfully prepared without surface treatment and deformation. The crystals have potential applications in lasers or photodetectors.

Keywords: Newton’s rings; concentric ring pattern; perovskite single crystal; press printing; spin-coating; templates.