We describe nine P-element vectors that can be used to study gene regulation and function in Drosophila. These vectors were designed for use in germline transformation and cell culture transfection assays. One set consists of five P elements that can be used to study transcriptional regulatory sequences. These vectors contain several unique restriction sites for insertion of a foreign promoter upstream from either a cat or lacZ reporter gene. Two of the beta-galactosidase-coding vectors also require the insertion of a start codon for translation of the reporter enzyme and thus can be used to study translational regulatory sequences. The second set of P elements consists of four vectors that contain the Drosophila cytoplasmic actin 5C promoter and polyadenylation signals. Upon insertion of a foreign DNA segment, these vectors direct constitutive expression of the encoded RNA and protein.