Serum KL-6 Concentrations as a Novel Biomarker of Severe COVID-19

J Med Virol. 2020 May 29;10.1002/jmv.26087. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26087. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-induced direct cytopathic effects against type I and II pneumocytes mediate lung damage. Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) is mainly produced by damaged or regenerating alveolar type II pneumocytes. This preliminary study analyzed serum concentrations of KL-6 in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to verify its potential as a prognostic biomarker of severity. Twenty-two patients (median age [interquartile range] 63 [59-68] years, 16 males) with COVID-19 were enrolled prospectively. Patients were divided into mild-moderate and severe groups, according to respiratory impairment and clinical management. KL-6 serum concentrations and lymphocyte subset were obtained. Peripheral natural killer (NK) cells/µL were significantly higher in nonsevere patients than in the severe group (P = .0449) and the best cut-off value was 119 cells/µL. KL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in severe patients than the nonsevere group (P = .0118). Receiver operating characteristic analysis distinguished severe and nonsevere patients according to KL-6 serum levels and the best cut-off value was 406.5 U/mL. NK cell analysis and assay of KL-6 in serum can help identify severe COVID-19 patients. Increased KL-6 serum concentrations were observed in patients with severe pulmonary involvement, revealing a prognostic value and supporting the potential usefulness of KL-6 measurement to evaluate COVID-19 patients' prognosis.

Keywords: COVID-19; KL-6; biomarker; prognosis.