Teacher-Reported Prevalence of FASD in Kindergarten in Canada: Association with Child Development and Problems at Home

J Autism Dev Disord. 2021 Feb;51(2):433-443. doi: 10.1007/s10803-020-04545-w.


The prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) may be underestimated as it can be difficult to diagnose in early childhood possibly reflecting unique developmental trajectories relative to other Neurodevelopmental Disabilities (NDDs). Using data collected via the Early Development Instrument (EDI) between 2010 and 2015, we examined the prevalence of kindergarten children with FASD and their concurrent developmental outcomes. We found that the prevalence of FASD ranged from 0.01 to 0.31%. A greater percentage of children with FASD had teacher-reported home problems that interfered with their classroom functioning. Overall children with FASD had higher mean scores on the developmental domains compared to children with NDDs. Results of the current study can inform strategies and policies for early identification and intervention.

Keywords: Developmental health; Early Development Instrument; Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder; Kindergarten; Prevalence; Problems at home.

MeSH terms

  • Canada / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Child Development / physiology*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Databases, Factual / trends
  • Educational Status
  • Family Relations* / psychology
  • Female
  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders / psychology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevalence
  • School Teachers / standards*
  • Schools / standards*