Outcomes of a technique combining diaphyseal impaction grafting and metaphyseal cones for severe bone loss in revision total knee arthroplasty

Bone Joint J. 2020 Jun;102-B(6_Supple_A):116-122. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.102B6.BJJ-2019-1511.R1.


Aims: Metaphyseal cones with cemented stems are frequently used in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, if the diaphysis has been previously violated, the resultant sclerotic canal can impair cemented stem fixation, which is vital for bone ingrowth into the cone, and long-term fixation. We report the outcomes of our solution to this problem, in which impaction grafting and a cemented stem in the diaphysis is combined with an uncemented metaphyseal cone, for revision TKA in patients with severely compromised bone.

Methods: A metaphyseal cone was combined with diaphyseal impaction grafting and cemented stems for 35 revision TKAs. There were two patients with follow-up of less than two years who were excluded, leaving 33 procedures in 32 patients in the study. The mean age of the patients at the time of revision TKA was 67 years (32 to 87); 20 (60%) were male. Patients had undergone a mean of four (1 to 13) previous knee arthroplasty procedures. The indications for revision were aseptic loosening (80%) and two-stage reimplantation for prosthetic joint infection (PJI; 20%). The mean follow-up was four years (2 to 11).

Results: Survival free from revision of the cone/impaction grafting construct due to aseptic loosening was 100% at five years. Survival free from any revision of the construct and free from any reoperation were 92% and 73% at five years, respectively. A total of six patients (six TKAs, 17%) required a further revision, four for infection or wound issues, and two for periprosthetic fracture. Radiologically, one unrevised TKA had evidence of loosening which was asymptomatic. In all unrevised TKAs the impacted diaphyseal bone graft appeared to be incorporated radiologically.

Conclusion: When presented with a sclerotic diaphysis and substantial metaphyseal bone loss, this technique combining diaphyseal impaction grafting with a metaphyseal cone provided near universal success in relation to implant fixation. Moreover, radiographs revealed incorporation of the bone graft and biological fixation of the cone. While long-term follow-up will be important, this technique provides an excellent option for the management of complex revision TKAs. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6 Supple A):116-122.

Keywords: Bone loss; Impaction grafting; Revision; Total knee arthroplasty.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee*
  • Bone Resorption / surgery*
  • Bone Transplantation*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diaphyses / transplantation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Knee Prosthesis*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications / surgery*
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Reoperation*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Treatment Outcome