Assessment of Bone Density Changes Following Two-Jaw Surgery Using Multidetector Computed Tomography: A Pilot Study

Korean J Orthod. 2020 May 25;50(3):157-169. doi: 10.4041/kjod.2020.50.3.157.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the pre- and postsurgical bone densities at alveolar and extra-alveolar sites following twojaw orthognathic surgery.

Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (mean age, 23.2 years; range, 18.0-27.8 years; 8 males, 2 females) who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery. A three-dimensional imaging program (Invivo 5) was used with multidetector computed tomography images taken preand postoperatively (obtained 32.3 ± 6.0 days before surgery and 5.8 ± 2.6 days after surgery, respectively) for the measurement of bone densities at the following sites: (1) alveolar bone in the maxilla and mandible, (2) extra-alveolar sites, such as the top of the head, menton (Me), condyle, and the fourth cervical vertebrae (C4).

Results: When pre- and postsurgical bone densities were compared, an overall tendency of decrease in bone density was noted. Statistically significant reductions were observed in the densities of cancellous bone at several areas of the maxillary alveolar bone; cortical and cancellous bone in most areas of the mandibular alveolar bone; cortical bone in Me; and cancellous bone in C4. There was no statistically significant difference in bone density in relation to the depth of the alveolar bone. In a comparison of the bone densities between groups with and without genioplasty, there was almost no statistically significant difference.

Conclusions: Accelerated tooth movement following orthognathic surgery may be confirmed with reduced bone density. In addition, this study could offer insights into bone metabolism changes following orthognathic surgery, providing direction for further investigations in this field.

Keywords: Bone density; Multidetector computed tomography; Orthognathic surgery; Regional and systemic acceleratory phenomena.