Evaluation of cephalometric characteristics and skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist in girls with central precocious puberty

Korean J Orthod. 2020 May 25;50(3):181-187. doi: 10.4041/kjod.2020.50.3.181.


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the differences in cephalometric characteristics and skeletal maturation in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) via lateral and hand-wrist radiographs. We also aimed to identify the indicators that are most effective for determining skeletal maturity in these patients.

Methods: The study included 70 Korean girls (mean age, 8.5 ± 0.5 years) diagnosed with CPP at the Department of Pediatrics, and 48 normal healthy age-matched girls who visited the Department of Orthodontics and had no history of hormone treatment or growth problems. Skeletal maturation was evaluated using lateral cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs using cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) and skeletal maturity indicators (SMI).

Results: The mean mandibular plane angle was smaller in the CPP group than in the control group (35.8° ± 4.9° vs. 39.0° ± 6.5°), resulting in greater posterior facial height (p = 0.003). SMI was significantly greater in the CPP group (3.5 ± 1.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0) than in the control group (p = 0.001) and was significantly associated with CPP (r = 0.492; p = 0.001), whereas CVMI was not.

Conclusions: In comparison with the control group, the CPP group exhibited a smaller mandibular plane angle, greater posterior facial height, and greater skeletal maturation. SMI may be more suitable than CVMI for determining skeletal maturation in CPP. Hand-wrist radiography is recommended in addition to lateral cephalogram for predicting growth in girls with CPP.

Keywords: Central precocious puberty; Cephalometrics; Hand-wrist; Skeletal maturation.