Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) belongs to the genus, Deltaretrovirus of the family, Retroviridae and it is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis. The prevalence of BLV in three provinces in the Red River Delta Region in the North of Vietnam, Hanoi, Vinhphuc and Bacninh was studied from April 2017 to June 2018. A total of 275 blood samples collected from cattle were used for serum isolation and DNA extraction. Of these samples, 266 sera were subjected to ELISA test for detecting antibody against BLV gp51 protein and 152 DNA samples were used to detect the 444 bp fragment corresponding to a part of the gp51 region of the env by nested PCR. The results showed that 16.5% (n=44) and 21.1% (n=32) of samples were positive for BLV gp51 antibody and BLV proviral DNA, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial (423 bp) and complete (913 bp) BLV env-gp51 gene indicated that Vietnamese strains were clustered into genotypes 1, 6 and 10 (G1, G6 and G10). Of those genotypes, G1 genotype was dominant; G6 strains were designated as G6e and G6f subgenotypes; the existence of genotype 10 was confirmed for the first time in Vietnam. The present study provides important information regarding the prevalence of BLV infection and genetic characteristics of BLV strains identified in Vietnam, contributing to promote the establishment of disease control and eradication strategies in Vietnam.
Keywords: Vietnam; bovine leukemia virus (BLV); cattle; detection; genotype.