Kidney biopsies are currently performed using preoperative imaging to identify the lesion of interest and intraoperative imaging used to guide the biopsy needle to the tissue of interest. Often, these are not the same modalities forcing the physician to perform a mental cross-modality fusion of the preoperative and intraoperative scans. This limits the accuracy and reproducibility of the biopsy procedure. In this study, we developed an augmented reality system to display holographic representations of lesions superimposed on a phantom. This system allows the integration of preoperative CT scans with intraoperative ultrasound scans to better determine the lesion's real-time location. An automated deformable registration algorithm was used to increase the accuracy of the holographic lesion locations, and a magnetic tracking system was developed to provide guidance for the biopsy procedure. Our method achieved a targeting accuracy of 2.9 ± 1.5 mm in a renal phantom study.
Keywords: Renal biopsy; augmented reality; image-guided interventions; kidney cancer; phantom study.