Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): An insight from west of Iran

North Clin Istanb. 2020 May 4;7(3):284-291. doi: 10.14744/nci.2020.90277. eCollection 2020.


Objective: To study the clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics of the pediatric patients infected with the new emerging 2019 coronavirus virus (SARS-CoV-2) in Hamadan and Sanandaj, west of Iran.

Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Hamadan and Kurdistan province between March 1 to April 15, 2020. Medical records of the children diagnosed as probable or confirmed cases of COVID-19 disease were extracted and analyzed in this study. We followed the WHO Guideline for the case definition of the patients.

Results: Thirty patients admitted to the wards specified for COVID-19 diseases. Nineteen (63%) patients categorized as confirmed by Real-Time Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and 11 (37%) patients as probable according to Computed Tomography (CT) findings of the chest. Sixteen (53.3%) cases were female, the youngest patient was one day old, and the oldest patient was 15 years old. 11 (36.7%) cases had a definite history of close contact. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and dyspnea, and the most common sign was tachypnea. None of our patients presented with a runny nose. Lymphopenia and marked elevation of the C-reactive Protein observed in four (13.3%) and 12 (40%) cases, respectively. There were 10 (33.3%) cases with normal chest X-rays. Ground-Glass Opacities (GGOs) were the most common CT findings (19, 73.1%). All but one of the patients discharged without sequala. An 11-yrs-old girl expired with a fulminant pneumonia.

Conclusion: COVID-19 is not uncommon in children and could have different presentations. Concomitant use of RT-PCR and chest CT scans in symptomatic cases recommended as a modality of choice to diagnose the disease. Routine laboratory tests, like many other viral infections, may not show significant or specific changes. The superimposed bacterial infection seems not the determinant of clinical outcomes as most patients had a negative evaluation by specific laboratory tests for bacterial infections; got improved dramatically with a short or no antibiotic therapy.

Keywords: COVID-19 disease; Coronavirus; Iran; child; diagnosis; imaging.