We have investigated the gas-phase (P = 1 atm; T = 373 K) hydrogenation of (tertiary alkynol) 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (MBY) and (secondary) 3-butyn-2-ol (BY) over a series of carbon (C), non-reducible (Al2O3 and MgO), and reducible (CeO2 and ZnO) supported monometallic [Pd (0.6-1.2% wt) and Zn (1% wt)] and bimetallic Pd-Zn (Pd:Zn mol ratio = 95:5, 70:30, and 30:70) catalysts synthesized by deposition-precipitation and colloidal deposition. The catalysts have been characterized by H2 chemisorption, hydrogen temperature-programmed desorption (H2-TPD), specific surface area (SSA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analyses. Reaction over these catalysts generated the target alkenol [2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBE) and 3-buten-2-ol (BE)] through partial hydrogenation and alkanol [2-methyl-butan-2-ol (MBA) and 2-butanol (BA)]/ketone [2-butanone (BONE)] as a result of full hydrogenation and double-bond migration. The catalysts exhibit a similar Pd nanoparticle size (2.7 ± 0.3 nm) but a modified electronic character (based on XPS). Hydrogenation activity is linked to surface hydrogen (from H2 chemisorption and H2-TPD). An increase in H2:alkynol (from 1 → 10) results in enhanced alkynol consumption with a greater rate in the transformation of MBY (vs BY); H2:alkynol had negligible effect on product distribution. Reaction selectivity is insensitive to the Pd site electron density with a similar response (SMBE = 65 ± 9% and SBE = 70 ± 8%) over Pdδ- (on Al2O3 and MgO) and Pdδ+ (on C and CeO2). A Pd/ZnO catalyst delivered enhanced alkenol selectivity (SMBE = 90% and SBE = 96%) attributed to PdZn alloy phase formation (proved by XRD and XPS) but low activity, ascribed to metal encapsulation. A two-fold increase in the consumption rate was recorded for Pd-Zn/Al2O3 (30:70) versus Pd/ZnO with a similar alloy content (32 ± 4% from XPS), ascribed to a contribution due to spillover hydrogen (from H2-TPD) where high alkenol selectivity was maintained.
Keywords: 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol; 3-butyn-2-ol; PdZn alloy; Selective gas phase hydrogenation; hydrogen partial pressure; support effects.