Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have come of age as preferred technologies for screening of genomic variants of pathologic and therapeutic potential. Because of their capability for high-throughput and massively parallel sequencing, they can screen for a variety of genomic changes in multiple samples simultaneously. This has made them platforms of choice for clinical testing of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Consequently, they are increasingly replacing conventional technologies, such as Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing, expression arrays, real-time PCR, and fluorescence in situ hybridization methods, for routine molecular testing of tumors. However, one limitation of routinely used NGS technologies is the inability to detect low-level genomic variants with high accuracy. This can be attributed to the frequent occurrence of low-level sequencing errors and artifacts in NGS workflow that need specialized approaches to be identified and eliminated. This review will focus on the origins and nature of these artifacts and recent improvements in the NGS technologies to overcome them to facilitate accurate high-sensitive detection of low-level mutations. Potential applications of high-sensitive NGS in oncology along with comparison with non-NGS orthogonal technologies of similar capabilities are also summarized.
Copyright © 2020 Association for Molecular Pathology and American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.