Long-range connectivity has become the most studied feature of human functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), yet the spatial and temporal relationship between its whole-brain dynamics and electrophysiological connectivity remains largely unknown. FMRI-derived functional connectivity exhibits spatial reconfigurations or time-varying dynamics at infraslow (<0.1Hz) speeds. Conversely, electrophysiological connectivity is based on cross-region coupling of fast oscillations (~1-100Hz). It is unclear whether such fast oscillation-based coupling varies at infraslow speeds, temporally coinciding with infraslow dynamics across the fMRI-based connectome. If so, does the association of fMRI-derived and electrophysiological dynamics spatially vary over the connectome across the functionally distinct electrophysiological oscillation bands? In two concurrent electroencephalography (EEG)-fMRI resting-state datasets, oscillation-based coherence in all canonical bands (delta through gamma) indeed reconfigured at infraslow speeds in tandem with fMRI-derived connectivity changes in corresponding region-pairs. Interestingly, irrespective of EEG frequency-band the cross-modal tie of connectivity dynamics comprised a large proportion of connections distributed across the entire connectome. However, there were frequency-specific differences in the relative strength of the cross-modal association. This association was strongest in visual to somatomotor connections for slower EEG-bands, and in connections involving the Default Mode Network for faster EEG-bands. Methodologically, the findings imply that neural connectivity dynamics can be reliably measured by fMRI despite heavy susceptibility to noise, and by EEG despite shortcomings of source reconstruction. Biologically, the findings provide evidence that contrast with known territories of oscillation power, oscillation coupling in all bands slowly reconfigures in a highly distributed manner across the whole-brain connectome.
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.