A dual-deaminase CRISPR base editor enables concurrent adenine and cytosine editing

Nat Biotechnol. 2020 Jul;38(7):861-864. doi: 10.1038/s41587-020-0535-y. Epub 2020 Jun 1.


Existing adenine and cytosine base editors induce only a single type of modification, limiting the range of DNA alterations that can be created. Here we describe a CRISPR-Cas9-based synchronous programmable adenine and cytosine editor (SPACE) that can concurrently introduce A-to-G and C-to-T substitutions with minimal RNA off-target edits. SPACE expands the range of possible DNA sequence alterations, broadening the research applications of CRISPR base editors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / chemistry
  • CRISPR-Associated Protein 9 / genetics*
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems / genetics*
  • Cytosine / chemistry
  • Cytosine Deaminase / genetics*
  • Gene Editing*
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Mutation / genetics
  • RNA / genetics


  • RNA
  • Cytosine
  • CRISPR-Associated Protein 9
  • Cytosine Deaminase
  • Adenine