Evaluation of the EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Assay for Detection of IgA and IgG Antibodies

J Clin Virol. 2020 May 23;129:104468. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104468. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

As the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic evolves, the development of immunoassays to help determine exposure and potentially predict immunity has become a pressing priority. In this report we present the performance of the EUROIMMUN enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for semi-quantitative detection of IgA and IgG antibodies in serum and plasma samples using recombinant S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as antigen. Specimens from patients, with and without COVID-19 infection, were tested at the University of Chicago Clinical Microbiology and Immunology Laboratory. Of 86 samples from SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative patients, including 28 samples positive for common human coronavirus strains, 76 tested negative and 10 tested positive for IgA (88.4% agreement, 95% CI: 79.9-93.6) while 84 tested negative and 2 tested positive for IgG (97.7% agreement, 95% CI: 91.9-99.6). Of 82 samples from SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients, 14 tested negative and 68 tested positive for IgA (82.9% agreement, 95% CI: 73.4-89.5) while 27 tested negative and 55 tested positive for IgG (67.1% agreement, 95% CI: 56.3-76.3). Of samples collected ≥4 days after positive PCR, 38 of 42 (90.5% agreement, 95% CI: 77.9-96.2) were positive for IgA, and 42 of 42 (100% agreement, 95% CI: 91.6-100) were positive for IgG, respectively. The EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Assay demonstrated good sensitivity for detection of IgA and excellent sensitivity for detection of IgG antibodies from samples collected ≥4 days, after COVID-19 diagnosis by PCR. This assay demonstrated good specificity for IgA and excellent specificity for IgG and demonstrated only borderline cross reaction in 2 of the 28 samples from patients with common human coronaviruses infection, types NL63 and OC43.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Serology.