Delineation of Clinical Manifestations of the Inherited Xq24 Microdeletion Segregating With sXCI in Mothers: Two Novel Cases With Distinct Phenotypes Ranging From UBE2A Deficiency Syndrome to Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Cytogenet Genome Res. 2020 May 30. doi: 10.1159/000508050. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Chromosomal microdeletion syndromes present with a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes that depend on the size and gene content of the affected region. In a healthy carrier, epigenetic mechanisms may compensate for the same microdeletion, which may segregate through several generations without any clinical symptoms until the epigenetic modifications no longer function. We report 2 novel cases of Xq24 microdeletions inherited from mothers with extremely skewed X-chromosome inactivation (sXCI). The first case is a boy presenting with X-linked mental retardation, Nascimento type, due to a 168-kb Xq24 microdeletion involving 5 genes (CXorf56, UBE2A, NKRF, SEPT6, and MIR766) inherited from a healthy mother and grandmother with sXCI. In the second family, the presence of a 239-kb Xq24 microdeletion involving 3 additional genes (SLC25A43, SLC25A5-AS1, and SLC25A5) was detected in a woman with sXCI and a history of recurrent pregnancy loss with a maternal family history without reproductive wastages or products of conception. These cases provide evidence that women with an Xq24 microdeletion and sXCI may be at risk for having a child with intellectual disability or for experiencing a pregnancy loss due to the ontogenetic pleiotropy of a chromosomal microdeletion and its incomplete penetrance modified by sXCI.

Keywords: Recurrent pregnancy loss; Skewed X-chromosome inactivation; UBE2A deficiency syndrome; Xq24 microdeletion.