Context: Control of multiple cardiovascular (CV) risk factors reduces CV events in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Objective: To investigate this association in a contemporary clinical trial population, including how CV risk factor control affects the CV benefits of empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor.
Design: Post hoc analysis.
Setting: Randomized CV outcome trial (EMPA-REG OUTCOME).
Participants: Type 2 diabetes patients with established CV disease.
Intervention: Empagliflozin or placebo.
Main outcome measures: Risk of CV outcomes-including the treatment effect of empagliflozin-by achieving 7 goals for CV risk factor control at baseline: (1) glycated hemoglobin <7.5%, (2) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL or statin use, (3) systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, (4) pharmacological renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade, (5) normoalbuminuria, (6) aspirin use, (7) nonsmoking.
Results: In the placebo group, the hazard ratio (HR) for CV death was 4.00 (95% CI, 2.26-7.11) and 2.48 (95% CI, 1.52-4.06) for patients achieving only 0-3 or 4-5 risk factor goals at baseline, respectively, compared with those achieving 6-7 goals. Participants achieving 0-3 or 4-5 goals also had increased risk for the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure or CV death (excluding fatal stroke) (HR 2.89 [1.82-4.57] and 1.90 [1.31-2.78], respectively) and 3-point major adverse CV events (HR 2.21 [1.53-3.19] and 1.42 [1.06-1.89]). Empagliflozin significantly reduced these outcomes across all risk factor control categories (P > 0.05 for treatment-by-subgroup interactions).
Conclusions: Cardiovascular risk in EMPA-REG OUTCOME was inversely associated with baseline CV risk factor control. Empagliflozin's cardioprotective effect was consistent regardless of multiple baseline risk factor control.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01131676.
Keywords: cardioprotective; cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes.
© Endocrine Society 2020.