Phytopathogenic fungi, causing significant economic and production losses, are becoming a serious threat to global food security. Due to an increase in fungal resistance and the hazardous effects of chemical fungicides to human and environmental health, scientists are now engaged to explore alternate non-chemical and ecofriendly management strategies. The use of biocontrol agents and their secondary metabolites (SMs) is one of the potential approaches used today. Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents used globally. Many Trichoderma species are the most prominent producers of SMs with antimicrobial activity against phytopathogenic fungi. Detailed information about these secondary metabolites, when grouped together, enhances the understanding of their efficient utilization and further exploration of new bioactive compounds for the management of plant pathogenic fungi. The current literature provides the information about SMs of Trichoderma spp. in a different context. In this review, we summarize and group different antifungal SMs of Trichoderma spp. against phytopathogenic fungi along with a comprehensive overview of some aspects related to their chemistry and biosynthesis. Moreover, a brief overview of the biosynthesis pathway, action mechanism, and different approaches for the analysis of SMs and the factors affecting the regulation of SMs in Trichoderma is also discussed.
Keywords: Trichoderma; antifungal; biological control; phytopathogenic fungi; secondary metabolites.