Study on the Influence of Measuring AE Sensor Type on the Effectiveness of OLTC Defect Classification

Sensors (Basel). 2020 May 30;20(11):3095. doi: 10.3390/s20113095.


The principal objective of this study is to improve the diagnostics of power transformers, which are the key element of supplying electricity to consumers. On Load Tap Changer (OLTC), which is the object of research, the results of which are presented in this article, is one of the most important elements of these devices. The applied diagnostic method is the acoustic emission (AE) method, which has the main advantage over others, that it is considered as a non-destructive testing method. At present, there are many measuring devices and sensors used in the AE method, there are also some international standards, according to which, measurements should be performed. In the presented work, AE signals were measured in laboratory conditions with various OLTC defects being simulated. Five types of sensors were used for the measurement. The recorded signals were analyzed in the time and frequency domain and using discrete wavelet transformation. Based on the results obtained, sets of indicators were determined, which were used as features for an autonomous classification of the type of defect. Several types of learning algorithms from the group of supervised machine learning were considered in the research. The performance of individual classifiers was determined by several quality evaluation measures. As a result of the analyses, the type and characteristics of the most optimal algorithm to be used in the process of classification of the OLTC fault type were indicated, depending on the type of sensor with which AE signals were recorded.

Keywords: AE sensor; OLTC; acoustic emission; feature extraction; machine learning; supervised classification.