Nicotinamide riboside (NR) has recently become one of the most studied nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors, due to its numerous potential health benefits mediated via elevated NAD+ content in the body. NAD+ is an essential coenzyme that plays important roles in various metabolic pathways and increasing its overall content has been confirmed as a valuable strategy for treating a wide variety of pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence on NRs' health benefits has validated its efficiency across numerous animal and human studies for the treatment of a number of cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and metabolic disorders. As the prevalence and morbidity of these conditions increases in modern society, the great necessity has arisen for a rapid translation of NR to therapeutic use and further establishment of its availability as a nutritional supplement. Here, we summarize currently available data on NR effects on metabolism, and several neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders, through to its application as a treatment for specific pathophysiological conditions. In addition, we have reviewed newly published research on the application of NR as a potential therapy against infections with several pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, to support rapid NR translation to therapeutics, the challenges related to its bioavailability and safety are addressed, together with the advantages of NR to other NAD+ precursors.
Keywords: COVID-19; age-associated diseases; bioavailability; metabolic disorders; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; nicotinamide riboside; safety; supplementation.