Rice-Associated Rhizobacteria as a Source of Secondary Metabolites against Burkholderia glumae

Molecules. 2020 May 31;25(11):2567. doi: 10.3390/molecules25112567.


Various diseases, including bacterial panicle blight (BPB) and sheath rot, threaten rice production. It has been established that Burkholderia glumae (B. glumae) is the causative agent of the above mentioned pathologies. In the present study, antagonistic activity, growth promotion, and the metabolite profiles of two rhizobacteria, isolated in different paddy fields, were assessed against B. glumae. Strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, and the phylogenetic analyses showed that both strains belong to the genus Enterobacter, with high similarity to the strain Enterobacter tabaci NR146667.2 (99%). The antagonistic activity was assessed with the disc diffusion method. Active fractions were isolated through a liquid/liquid extraction with ethyl acetate (EtOAc) from the fermentation media, and their antibacterial activities were evaluated following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The Pikovskaya modified medium was used to test the ability of in vitro inorganic phosphorus solubilization, and BSB1 proved to be the best inorganic phosphorus solubilizer, with a solubilization index (SI) of 4.5 ± 0.2. The glass-column fractionation of the EtOAc extracted from BCB11 produced an active fraction (25.9 mg) that inhibited the growth of five B. glumae strains by 85-95%. Further, metabolomic analysis, based on GC-MS, showed 3-phenylpropanoic acid (3-PPA) to be the main compound both in this fraction (46.7%), and in the BSB1 extract (28.6%). This compound showed antibacterial activity against all five strains of B. glumae with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1000 mg/L towards all of them. The results showed that rice rhizosphere microorganisms are a source of compounds that inhibit B. glumae growth and are promising plant growth promoters (PGP).

Keywords: Burkholderia glumae; PGP; metabolome; rhizobacteria; rice.

MeSH terms

  • Acetates / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Burkholderia / pathogenicity*
  • Enterobacter / classification
  • Enterobacter / metabolism*
  • Fermentation
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Metabolomics
  • Oryza / microbiology*
  • Phenylpropionates / chemistry
  • Phosphates / chemistry
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology*
  • Plant Diseases / prevention & control*
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Secondary Metabolism
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • Virulence / genetics


  • Acetates
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Phenylpropionates
  • Phosphates
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • 3-phenylpropionic acid
  • ethyl acetate

Supplementary concepts

  • Burkholderia glumae