Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: an overview

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Oct;32(5):316-321. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000641.


Purpose of review: Examine recent evidence of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses regarding the effect of maternal vitamin D status and supplementation over obstetrical and offspring outcomes.

Recent findings: Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin [25(OH)D] progressively declines during pregnancy because of fetal physiological demands and adjustments. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy in women with low vitamin D status may improve fetal growth and reduce the risks for small-for-gestational-age, preeclampsia, preterm birth, and gestational diabetes. Mothers with sufficient vitamin D levels have offsprings with less enamel defects and less attention deficit and hyperactive disorders and autism. All pregnant women should be supplemented with 600 IU/day of vitamin D3. We discuss evidence indicating that higher vitamin D doses (1000-4000 IU/day) may be convenient to achieve better maternal and infant outcomes. Low maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy may be associated in infants with a higher risk for lower bone mineral content, enamel defects and attention deficit hyperactive disorder.

Summary: Recent evidence from vitamin D intervention studies and meta-analyses of a large number of studies support vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy to improve maternal, fetal and, immediate and later offspring health.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Fetal Development / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / blood
  • Pregnancy Complications / prevention & control*
  • Prenatal Care / methods
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / prevention & control*
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage*


  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D