The pathophysiological nature of the common ABCG2 gout and hyperuricemia associated variant Q141K (rs2231142) remains undefined. Here, we use a human interventional cohort study (ACTRN12615001302549) to understand the physiological role of ABCG2 and find that participants with the Q141K ABCG2 variant display elevated serum urate, unaltered FEUA, and significant evidence of reduced extra-renal urate excretion. We explore mechanisms by generating a mouse model of the orthologous Q140K Abcg2 variant and find male mice have significant hyperuricemia and metabolic alterations, but only subtle alterations of renal urate excretion and ABCG2 abundance. By contrast, these mice display a severe defect in ABCG2 abundance and function in the intestinal tract. These results suggest a tissue specific pathobiology of the Q141K variant, support an important role for ABCG2 in urate excretion in both the human kidney and intestinal tract, and provide insight into the importance of intestinal urate excretion for serum urate homeostasis.