In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan.


Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of the gingival tissue, most commonly caused by bacterial infection. Unlike periodontitis, there is no attachment loss and therefore no migration of the junctional epithelium. The condition is restricted to the soft-tissue area of the gingival epithelium and connective tissue . Among all the periodontal diseases, gingivitis is considered to be the commonest. There are various forms of gingivitis based on clinical appearance, duration of infection, severity, and etiology. However, the chronic form of gingivitis that is caused by plaque is considered to be the most frequent variant. Clinically, the gingival tissues are characterized by swelling, redness, tenderness, a shiny surface, and bleeding upon gentle probing. Gingivitis seldom generates spontaneous bleeding and is commonly painless, therefore many patients do not recognize the disease and fail to seek attention .

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