Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a molecular basis of memory formation. Here, we demonstrate that LTP critically depends on fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 2 (Fbp2)-a glyconeogenic enzyme and moonlighting protein protecting mitochondria against stress. We show that LTP induction regulates Fbp2 association with neuronal mitochondria and Camk2 and that the Fbp2-Camk2 interaction correlates with Camk2 autophosphorylation. Silencing of Fbp2 expression or simultaneous inhibition and tetramerization of the enzyme with a synthetic effector mimicking the action of physiological inhibitors (NAD+ and AMP) abolishes Camk2 autoactivation and blocks formation of the early phase of LTP and expression of the late phase LTP markers. Astrocyte-derived lactate reduces NAD+/NADH ratio in neurons and thus diminishes the pool of tetrameric and increases the fraction of dimeric Fbp2. We therefore hypothesize that this NAD+-level-dependent increase of the Fbp2 dimer/tetramer ratio might be a crucial mechanism in which astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle stimulates LTP formation.
Keywords: astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle; memory formation; moonlighting protein; protein–protein interaction.