Introduction: Despite its rarity, male breast cancer shows a steadily rising incidence. Given the absence of ad hoc prospective randomized clinical trials, treatment strategies are based on extrapolation from female breast cancer recommendations or solely on population-based data.
Areas covered: This review discusses the current treatment landscape for male breast cancer in the adjuvant and in the metastatic setting. The authors also discuss the biology and genomic landscape of male breast cancer. Original research and review articles, relative to the period 2010-2019, were included in the review of the literature.
Expert opinion: There is a major medical need to include male patients with breast cancer in prospective clinical trials. The call to equality in breast cancer care can be pursued via two divergent paths: (i) a gender-neutral delivery of breast cancer information and (ii) the creation of separate sections, for the more common female breast cancer and for the rare male ones. We propose to differentiate male breast cancer care, acknowledging unique onco-sexual and social needs that can be only partially shared.
Keywords: Male breast cancer; breast neoplasm; clinical trials; men; pharmacological therapy; precision medicine.