Bone fracture among people living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-regression of prevalence, incidence, and risk factors

PLoS One. 2020 Jun 4;15(6):e0233501. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0233501. eCollection 2020.


Introduction: People living with HIV (PLWH) had a higher prevalence and incidence rate of bone fracture compared to general population. Although several studies have explored this phenomenon, the prevalence and incidence rate of fracture were varied.

Objective: The aim of the study is to determine and analyze the pooled prevalence, incidence rate of fracture and fracture risk factors among people living with HIV (PLWH).

Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL with full Text, and Medline databases for studies published up to August 2019 were searched. Studies reporting the prevalence or incidence of fracture among PLWH were included. Study quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) appraisal tool. A meta-analysis with random-effects model was performed to determine pooled estimates of prevalence and incidence rates of fracture. A meta-regression was performed to determine the source of heterogeneity.

Results: The pooled estimated prevalence of fracture among PLWH was 6.6% (95% CI: 3.8-11.1) with pooled odds ratio of 1.9 (95%CI: 1.1-3.2) compared to the general population. The pooled estimates of fracture incidence were 11.3 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 7.9-14.5) with incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.8) compared to the general population. Risk factors for fracture incidence were older age (aHR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.6), smoking (aHR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), HIV/HCV co-infection (aHR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-1.9), and osteoporosis (aHR 3.3, 95% CI: 2.2-5.1).

Conclusions: Our finding highlights a higher risk of fracture among PLWH compared to the general population. Osteoporosis, smoking and HIV/HCV coinfection as the significant modifiable risk factors should be prioritized by the HIV health providers when care for PLWH.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Fractures, Bone / epidemiology*
  • Fractures, Spontaneous / epidemiology
  • Fractures, Spontaneous / etiology
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Osteoporosis / complications
  • Osteoporosis / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Publication Bias
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Young Adult

Grant support

The Indonesian Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP) and The Directorate General of Higher Education (DIKTI) supported IP. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.