Objective: Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a severe common long-term complication of type 1 diabetes caused by impaired sensory-motor nerve function. As chronic low-grade inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of DSPN, we investigated the circulating levels of inflammatory markers in individuals with type 1 diabetes with and without DSPN. Furthermore, we determined to what extent these factors correlated with different peripheral sensory nerve functions.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Patients: The study included 103 individuals with type 1 diabetes with (n = 50) and without DSPN (n = 53) as well as a cohort of healthy controls (n = 21).
Measurements: Circulating levels of various inflammatory markers (cytokines, chemokines and soluble adhesion molecules) were determined in serum samples by Luminex multiplexing technology. Peripheral sensory nerve testing, for example vibration, tactile and thermal perception, was assessed by standardized procedures.
Results: The cytokines IL-1α, IL-4, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A and TNF-α; the chemokine MCP-1; and the adhesion molecule E-selectin were significantly increased in individuals with type 1 diabetes with DSPN compared to those without DSPN (P < .001). These observations were independent of age, sex, BMI, disease duration and blood pressure. Additionally, higher serum concentrations of cytokines and chemokines were associated with higher vibration and tactile perception thresholds, but not with heat tolerance threshold.
Conclusions: Individuals with type 1 diabetes and concomitant DSPN display higher serum levels of several inflammatory markers. These findings support that systemic low-grade inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of DSPN.
Keywords: Type 1; cell adhesion molecules; chemokines; cytokines; diabetes mellitus; diabetic neuropathies; inflammation mediators; tactile perception.
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.