Gene Regulation via the Combination of Transcription Factors in the INDETERMINATE DOMAIN and GRAS Families

Genes (Basel). 2020 Jun 2;11(6):613. doi: 10.3390/genes11060613.


INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) family proteins are plant-specific transcription factors. Some Arabidopsis IDD (AtIDD) proteins regulate the expression of SCARECROW (SCR) by interacting with GRAS family transcription factors SHORT-ROOT (SHR) and SCR, which are involved in root tissue formation. Some AtIDD proteins regulate genes involved in the synthesis (GA3ox1) or signaling (SCL3) of gibberellic acid (GA) by interacting with DELLA proteins, a subfamily of the GRAS family. We analyzed the DNA binding properties and protein-protein interactions of select AtIDD proteins. We also investigated the transcriptional activity of the combination of AtIDD and GRAS proteins (AtIDD proteins combined with SHR and SCR or with REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA)) on the promoters of SCR,SCL3, and GA3ox1 by conducting a transient assay using Arabidopsis culture cells. Our results showed that the SCR promoter could be activated by the IDD and RGA complexes and that the SCL3 and GA3ox1 promoters could be activated by the IDD, SHR, and SCR complexes, indicating the possibility that these complexes regulate and consequently coordinate the expression of genes involved in GA synthesis (GA3ox1), GA signaling (SCL3), and root formation (SCR).

Keywords: DELLA; GA3 oxidase (GA3ox) 1; GRAS family; INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) family; REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA); SCARECROW (SCR); SCARECROW-LIKE 3 (SCL3); SHORT-ROOT (SHR); transcription factor (TF).

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics*
  • Co-Repressor Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Gibberellins / metabolism
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics*
  • Multigene Family / genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Co-Repressor Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • GAI protein, Arabidopsis
  • Gibberellins
  • RGA protein, Arabidopsis
  • Repressor Proteins
  • SCL3 protein, Arabidopsis
  • SCR protein, Arabidopsis
  • SHORT ROOT protein, Arabidopsis
  • Transcription Factors
  • indeterminate(ID)-domain 14 protein, Arabidopsis
  • gibberellic acid
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • gibberellin 3-oxidase 1, Arabidopsis